The sculpture is an artistic activity that involves design and implement forms in volume, relief or in the round, in high relief, low relief, by modeling, welding or assembly.
The term "sculpture" comes etymologically from the Latin "sculpere" which means "carve" or "remove pieces to a stone." This definition distinguishes "sculpture" and "modeling" shows the importance given to the size of the stone in the Roman civilization. In the tenth century, speaks of "ymagier" and most of the time, the sculptor's work is team work with a master and stonemasons (see Romanesque architecture and art Romanesque). Several teams working simultaneously on large sites cathedrals.
- The medieval Sculpture
- The Sculpture of VI to XII century http://www.insecula.com/salle/MS00030.html
- The Sculpture
Stone carving is a particular technique of sculpture in that it denotes a method of manufacturing a different work of modeling clay or cast iron. The term should not be confused with the work of stonemasons shaping blocks of stone for the sculpture but also architecture, building or civil engineering. It is also a term used by archaeologists, historians and anthropologists to describe the manufacture of petroglyph.
Sometimes two types of stone carving:
- Shaping a rock directly where it is
- The more prevalent now, is based on the work of a block of stone extracted previously of a quarry .
The first step consists to choose the sculptor's stone. The ideal stone is one that has no or little cracks so it is not likely to burst. The choice of the artist is also related to the type of stone on which he wishes work. It can be soft or hard as he chooses limestone, sandstone, gypsum, granite, basalt or marble.
Some artists use the stone itself as inspiration. The Renaissance artist Michelangelo claimed and his job was to "free the human form trapped inside the block."
The soft stone such as chalk, soapstone, pumice tuff and can be easily cut with objects discovered in nature, such as stone, wood, or with nails. Limestone and marble can be worked using abrasives and tools easy iron. However, granite, basalt and some metamorphic rocks are difficult to carve, even with tools of iron or steel. Precious and semi-precious stones can also be carved into delicate shapes for jewelry or large items, before being polished.
First phase, the draft:
Second phase, refining:
Entered of a sculptor in refining phase, it takes the sculpture to move towards its final appearance.
Somes names of Sculptors:
- Gian Lorenzo Bernini, say Le Bernin or Cavaliere Bernini:
- Antonio Canova:
- François Rude:
- The gold in architecture
- The ormentation
- The sculptures of Panthéon
- The sculpture of urban art
A sculpture in Bruges
Association "Un Chemin Historique et Touristique en Ile-de-France":
- The website of the Association: