|The Castle of Vigny|
The Middle Ages, symbolic period remained in us and in the history of France as an indelible, has brought France to the path of discovery, progress. This period has left us many things, such as any period, but it has generated a number of inventions and make technological strides man, his life, his way of seeing things.
In the twelfth century, Europe experienced a dramatic acceleration of inventions, innovations in the means of production and economic growth.
This period saw major technological advances, including the use of gunpowder and the astrolabe, the invention of spectacles, the significant improvement in water mills, building techniques, agriculture, the clocks and boats.
Large projects emerged as the construction of cathedrals, the "stronghold abbey", Cluny, Cistercian, the first step towards a more independent walking villages, separating the people of the castle as a child born, villages built. Lifestyles changed, the people have to face this new way of living, which remained under the protection of knights, everyone had to organize, manage sometimes, which, in the space of time, generally such laws, taxes, approach, etc ...
Water mills multiplied and their use became more diversified, the mill at the sawmill wood or stone, probably inspired by Roman technology. At the end of the eleventh century, every village had its Europe or mills. Mills were also widely used in mines to raise the ore mine shafts to extract metals, and even operate the bellows.
Technology, too, was a great discovery engine of any kind, either at the vision of the earth as we had before, at the stars, planets, for man, led by his beliefs, symbols, myths, long hoped to break so many secrets, so many mysteries remained there still pending. For example, in terms of technical drawing, anatomical Guido da Vigevano of (1345) or sketch Villard (1225-1250) can be considered as precursors of the work of artists of the Renaissance engineers as Taccola and Leonardo da Vinci.
Progress on the boats paved the way for great discoveries of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The use of the compass and the astrolabe, as well as improvements in the manufacture of ships, made possible the navigation across vast oceans, where découla European domination of world trade. We reach here the great voyages of Christopher Colomb as browsers, Marco Polo, Vasco de Gamma, conquests earth hitherto unknown, as the conquistadore, which resulted course, all the inventions of the marine world, the astral world, etc ....
A little later, the printing press developed by Gutenberg made possible the dissemination of knowledge within a larger population. Popularization of knowledge led to European society more egalitarian. In addition, the availability of a large pool of shared knowledge and experience made the company capable of dominating other cultures.
Great discoveries are the historical period stretching from the early fifteenth century to the early seventeenth century. During this period, Europeans engaged in intensive exploration of the Earth, mapping the planet and establish direct contacts with Africa, the Americas, Asia and Oceania. The expression Age discoveries is also used by historians.
Do not forget the Art, who was with people as Molière, Louis XIV, Lully, .. I could go on and best, highlighted, put a lot more day I would say, with printing, we can say the first sign of the press, education, teaching and knowledge different parties and "events" that have punctuated rhythm and yet our lives and the people in the Middle Ages ....
Until the Renaissance, there is no precise difference between the artist and the craftsman: called "artist" a craftsman whose production is of exceptional quality. The difference starts to become more accurate when artists begin to empower corporations to pledge allegiance to the academies and command nobiliaire8. It was then that the now familiar sense of the word "art" is beginning to emerge: not only are many techniques separate from, but again, after the discovery of the rules of perspective, the visual aspect will be important growing.
It's that time of the Enlightenment notion of art now generally accepted. Starting from a reflection on the meaning and taste, a design based on the idea of beauty eventually settled. With Immanuel Kant, aesthetics acquires its sense of a theory of art which the Romantic movement give the paradigmatic examples. The importance of observing rules then passes into the background while the intention of the artist, who is our senses and emotions, becomes paramount.
The Court of France
Mythology to Versailles
- Lexicon of Middle Ages
The world of Castles:
The art, the culture in Middle ages: