Friday, 4 November 2011
The Art in France
- The illumination:
What is an illuminated manuscript?
The word of manuscript comes from the Latin script: manus (hand) and scribere (write), that is to say, a text written in terms of main.Les "miniature" or "illumination" are frequently used to describe the decoration painted in the books. That of "miniature" comes from the Italian "miniature", itself derived from the Latin verb "MINIARA", that is to say, "coat of red lead" - a lead oxide red color used to draw the initial called headings and titles. A miniature means, broadly speaking, the representation of a scene or a character in an independent space of the original. The Latin verb "Illuminare" (illuminate, illuminate) gave the French word "illuminate".
This term now includes the set of decorative and pictorial representations executed in a manuscript to embellish, but in the thirteenth century he was referring primarily to the use of gilding.
Few more: http://www.enluminures.culture.fr/documentation/enlumine/fr/index3.html
- Terracotta sculpture of Maine:
The modeling of the earth
The abundance of clay deposits in Maine, especially around Le Mans, in the forest of Bonnet, and Ligron Malicorne-sur-Sarthe, has certainly contributed to the development of the workshops of sculptors who were affiliated terracottas in the seventeenth century, the same company as the "potters earth" in the city of Mans.Souligné Flac, church of St. Rigomer: St. Martin, 2nd half of the seventeenth century, detached part of the cap.
Doucelle, Church of St. Martin: Madonna and Child, second half of the sixteenth century, revers.Luché-Pringe, Church of St. Martin de Luche: Education of the Virgin, 1659, revers.Ces sculptors were preparing modeleurs.Ils were generally parts by accumulation of coils around a core, consisting of a piece of wood or other plant material jam or oiled paper, which kept the sculpture during the time of its processing. Some finishes were obtained by adding elements modeled except that we fixed on the sculpture by slip. These items show when, as a result of some accident, these elements are detached from the whole: and the top of the skull of a Saint Peter, Moncé-en-Saosnois, or the fallout from the edge of a a cap on Saint Martin de Underline Flac.
The artist then hollowing out the inside of the sculpture by expanding the cavity left by the soul, he took off before firing. On the reverse, he punched one or more vent holes designed to remove moisture from the earth during cooking. These setbacks were rarely intended to be apparent, the statue is usually placed against the altar, within a niche.
Also, they are they only very rarely blocked, the other side of the statue is not generally surfaced. If a figure is to be seen in profile, like Saint Francis of Luche-Ping, who is probably the patron saint of a donor kneeling, the opposite profile which is then drilled vent holes. The shape of the vents does not matter: they are usually circular (the Virgin of Vouvray-sur-Huisne), sometimes oval (a Virgin and a Saint to Doucelle) or more or less rectangular (the Virgin of Écommoy). Their outlines sometimes operate as a true "trademark" of a workshop on most works Hoyau (the Saint Francis Cathedral of Le Mans) and Delabarre, they have often been performed with care, respecting a plot very regular.
Sometimes the artist takes advantage of what the land is still fresh in order to cut a registration signature, such as the St. Peter's Doudieux to praise or pain Hoyau Virgin in the cathedral of Le Mans, or date , 1659 on Education of the Virgin of Luche-Pringe, 1681 on the back of a Virgin and Child with Saint-Mars-d'Outillé.
- Masonry Art:
Masonry is the art of building construction by assembling elementary materials related but are not reversible. It is the art of the mason by definition.
Traditional masonry is called limousinerie. By extension, it also associates under the term "masonry" work packages covering: installation of plaster, tiles, etc.. That not only have aesthetic purposes but participate in the conduct of the whole face of attacks external (moisture, frost, etc.).. A product that reflects more the association is acrylic stucco which replaces the traditional stucco made from lime.
The term masonry with a capital letter, may also refer to Freemasonry.
- The ironwork:
The ironwork is the art and technique of iron working at the forge, the stamp or hammer. The structural metalwork are made by a blacksmith. Can be distinguished:
* The domestic ironwork, which includes cooking utensils, (roasting, andirons) and ironwork funeral.
* The ironwork of work related to agricultural production or craft (plows, spades, harrows, tools). No treaty locksmith earlier in the seventeenth century has been preserved , the first treaty that reached us was written by Mathurin Jousse in 1627, followed in 1762 by the Art of the locksmith prepared by Duhamel du Monceau.
* The ironwork of the building, which produces objects and architectural ornaments of wrought iron (railings, gates, railings, or art objects). The ironwork was the natural extension of decorative buildings of all époques.Simultanément to improving techniques for the extraction of iron, ironwork, lighter and stronger, replaced the protections of wood or stone that secures buildings.
The ironwork was a very important development in the nineteenth century with the emergence of the foundry and distribution of industrial design in cast iron.
The carpenter makes furniture and panels, wood, consisting of a frame on which are applied joinery leaves precious wood called veneer or other material that completely or partially conceal the bâti.Il unit can produce or in small numbers. The cabinet maker is primarily a craftsman. The word cabinet appears in the dictionary of the Academy in 1732 for the first time, to differentiate the term carpentry, cabinet-makers as artisans, in addition to carpentry techniques rely on the veneer of marquetry and inlaid ware. It comes from the word ebony, probably Nubian roots (Egypt) who goes around the Mediterranean through Greece and Rome, and designating the wood of the ebony, black. This is the work of this valuable species that gave the name to the profession responsible authority "of a more decorative than utilitarian."
The furniture of cabinet may be old-style or contemporary design. The project manager ensures the various manufacturing steps: model selection and timber, lumber and wrought, construction joints, the decoration and assembly. Chests of drawers, corner cupboards, secretaries, cabinets, desks and other furniture covered with scales, veneer, inlay, lacquer, varnish, china cabinet furniture are. Its finish is sometimes entrusted to a specialized craftsman: marquetry, editor in bronze, wood carver, gilder, varnishing.
- The town and the works of Art:
An invitation to discover the resources sometimes overlooked when a French spirit of creation is to serve a certain lifestyle. A Lifestyle for all ... and for a long time.
François DOUBIN - Founding President
City of ceramic tradition, with a rich heritage artistique.Picasso lived there and his creation is still present in the city. a Museum
National "Chapelle-Picasso-The War & Peace", Magnelli Museum, Museum of Ceramics, a hundred shops open all year, a municipal school of fine arts ceramics, recreation and municipal degree, a biennial International Ceramics of art, monthly exhibitions, conferences, workshops, a space museum dedicated to John Marais.Des regional traditions: gathering of orange blossom, creation and sale of perfumes, and crystal-glass craftsmen.
Town of ceramic traditions, endowed with a rich artistic heritage. Picasso lived here and his works are still present in the town. A national Museum " the Picasso Chapel-War and Peace", the Magnelli Museum, a Ceramic Museum, a hundred potteries and workshops opened all the year, a city school of fine arts and ceramic, monthly exhibitions, conferences, courses, a display room dedicated to Jean Marais.
Regional traditions: orange flower harvesting, creation and sale of perfumes, glassblowing and crystal work.
European Capital World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Art city full of history. Old tradition of craftsmanship in the Arts and Crafts: carpenter, plasterer and stucco, organ builder, woodcarver, blacksmith, gilder, upholstery, instrument maker, etc.. Become a European center for arts and crafts.
- The Organs:
We agree that the first organ was invented by a Greek of Alexandria, Ctesibius in the third century BC. BC This ancestor worked with water and received the name of hydraulos, or hydraulic, that is to say "the aulos which works with water.
But prehistory mythology of the organ begins with the figure of the Greek satyr Marsyas, an aulos player, the "boss" of the future body, known to have been struggling with Apollo, the "boss" lyre players, and thus of modern harpsichord and harp players.
Petronius in his Satyricon qu'aucirque tells us, hydraulics accompanied the chariot races.
Small organs with our own so-called Barbary organs were in use among the Romans, especially in theaters this explains the distrust of the first Christian bishops against players of instruments and musicians in all categories. Nero would have found this tool while traveling in Greece, he vowed to play to celebrate his triumph if he was given the victory over the Gauls in the sedition of 67. His successors, Heliogabalus, Alexander Severus, Gallienus, were admirers of the organ. Many fragments of Roman organ were found, including that of Avenches in Switzerland.
In Byzantium, the organ becomes an instrument of imperial pomp after the transfer of the seat of the Roman Empire because of barbarian invasions. An organ was donated by an embassy of Constantine V, Byzantine Emperor, Pepin the Short in 750. The reintroduction of the instrument in the West, who had disappeared after the barbarian invasions, was first served to increase the pump secular palaces.
It was only later that a gradual its entry into the Catholic Church: first in the cloisters (such as "guide vocals") in the eleventh century and the twelfth century in churches, probably at the instigation of Pope Sylvester II [ref. required], which would have built an organ can still be seen in the cathedral of Reims in the twelfth century. This entry, although gradual, was not done without causing confusion and controversy and litigation more or less passion between agencies. [Ref. needed] In the thirteenth century, major European churches compete with each other: they are expanding their instruments or build new ones. The organ was finally recognized by the religious world.
For more ....:
The stained Glass
The term stained glass can refer to coloured glass as a material or to works produced from it. Throughout its thousand-year history, the term has been applied almost exclusively to the windows of churches and other significant buildings. Although traditionally made in flat panels and used as windows, the creations of modern stained glass artists also include three-dimensional structures and sculpture.
Modern vernacular usage has often extended the term "stained glass" to include domestic leadlight and objets d'art created from lead came and copper foil glasswork exemplified in the famous lamps of Louis Comfort Tiffany....
- Center of stained glass:
An Gasconne legend
The snake of the Pyrénnées
Gascon legend says that there was once, in the Mountain (the Pyrenees), a long snake of one hundred yards, larger than the trunks of old oaks, with red eyes and a tongue-shaped large sword. The Serpent understood and spoke the languages of all countries, and he reasoned that no Christian was better able to do so. But he was more wicked than all the devils of hell, and so greedy that nothing could satisfy.
Day and night, the snake lived in a cliff, mouth wide open like a church door. By force of his eyes and his s feathers, and went plunging into his mouth. This was the point that no one dared to keep his cattle within three miles of the home of the Serpent. So, the locals gathered and made drumming in every village, "Ran Tan Plan Ran Tan Plan Ran tan plan. He who kills the snake, will be free to reach for anything on the Mount, one hundred cows and calves, one hundred mares with their foals, five hundred five hundred sheep and goats.
In that time there lived a young blacksmith, strong and bold as Samson, as no notice. "It's me, he says, who has asked me to kill the snake, and earn the reward. "Without being given the Serpent, he set up his forge in a cave, just below where the rock was still the male beast. This done, he became, by the belt, with a long chain of iron, and lead the other end firmly into the stone of the cave. "Now, he says, we'll laugh. "
So the smith plunged into the fire seven iron bars as thick as the thigh, and blew strong. When they were red, he threw them out. By the force of the eyes and the breath of the serpent, the seven iron bars s'enlevèrent red earth like feathers and came plunging into his mouth. But the blacksmith was held back by his chain, and he went into the cave. An hour later, seven other bars of hot iron, as thick as the thigh, s'enlevèrent ground like feathers and came plunging into the mouth of the Snake. But the blacksmith was held back by his chain, and he went into the cave.
This work lasted seven years. The red iron bars had set fire in the guts of the Serpent. To quench his thirst, he swallowed the snow by the cartload, it began to dry fountains and mountain streams. But the fire took up in his guts every time he swallowed seven new bars of iron. Finally, the male beast burst. Water she vomits in dying, he formed a large lake. So, the locals gathered, and said to the blacksmith: "What is promised will be done. You are free to reach for anything on the Mount, one hundred cows and calves, one hundred mares with their foals, five hundred five hundred sheep and goats. "
A year later, there were only the bones of the Serpent on the rock which he had made his home. With these bones, the locals did build a church. But the church was not yet covered, that the country was proven in many cases by storms and hail as we had never seen. So people understood that God was not happy cequ'ils had done, and they set fire to the church.
Pour en savoir plus...http://www.france-pittoresque.com/richesses/index.htm
Some addresses on crafts art:
Federation, a research center, guide, directory, etc ...:
Informations on the fine crafts in france métiersdart-artisanat.com
Art in France:
Let tell you about the cities and countries of Art and History, by the path of cultural tourism (Guided visits, discoveries visits, Expos, Animations, etc...)
- Web site: La France Pittoresque:
A path to the Castles of Ile-de-France...