Wednesday, 12 October 2011
The business of Architect
The architecture is an activity that was and is practiced in different ways by men whose education and status have changed significantly.
I.The Architecture without Architects:
The architectural profession has not always existed and is now limited to certain buildings. In fact, most buildings are built without an architect, recognized as such, occurs. This applies to all domestic vernacular buildings. This architecture, which the contractor is often the user or a skilled artisan, based on traditional knowledge.
II.The invention of architects:
In the great empires of the second and third millennia BC, theologians and priests set out the rules of construction. The foreman, whose rank is high but belong to the same social categories as masons and bricklayers, are both architects and contractors. As for the arkhitektôn Greek, it means the more often the master carpenter. However, in the eyes of philosophers, merit surpasses that of the painter or sculptor, simple imitation of reality. Many medieval manuscripts refer to God as the "Architect of the Universe", which reflects respect for the value of this task. We do know that men who exercise this function are not designated as such, but more often as "master builders." The term "architecteur" and architect, modeled on the Italian architettore, appears in France at the beginning of the Renaissance, after the expedition of Charles VIII in Italy (1495). Until the eighteenth century, the profession is still merged with that of entrepreneur. The creation in Paris in 1671, the Royal Academy of Architecture, advisory body of the king and to develop a doctrine, contributes to both raise the profile and give a theoretical basis. In France in the nineteenth century, architecture is taught only to the National School of Fine Arts (which awards an annual Rome Prize of architecture) and the Special School of Architecture. Graduates are then marked DPLG "graduated by the government." In 1968, education is decentralized and diversified with the creation of "teaching units".
III.Knowledge of the architect:
Because of the wide range of scales present practice of architecture (the design of interior spaces to urban), the skills required are very large and high capacity for synthesis is essential. The lessons learned are primarily technical in order to analyze the forces acting on the frame, to know the materials and their qualities and control techniques to implement, scalable. Knowledge and practice cosmetic plastic is required. To meet the problems posed by urban contemporary societies, the aspirant to an architect gets the basics of the human sciences that relate to its practice: sociology, psychology, ergonomics, etc..
IV.The practice of a profession:
The architectural profession can now be exercised freely, as an official or employee as an agency. A house of Architects. This trade is essentially a team effort, in connection with various professionals: planners, sociologists, landscape architects. For the sole design of a building, one man finds it difficult to gather all the knowledge and ability to work required. Any major project is the work of a team. The architectural firms had sometimes more than one hundred people in the 1960s: several projects were carried out simultaneously and the tasks were very divided. The architectural firms can rely more now about fifty employees. The time of the architect "demiurge" and is far from omniscient, although some of them, thanks to the media relay, enjoy prestige important.